Participants and Abstracts

 

Ambeth Ocampo Ateneo de Manila University

Rewriting Magellan: Historiography and the Filipino Point of View

Magellan and Columbus are names that figure prominently in a part of Western history, roughly from the 15th-18th centuries, known as the “Age of Discovery.” History credited them for “discovering” new lands and peoples and in Magellan’s case was killed by them in Mactan in 1521 hence the more nuanced politically correct term for this period and its heroes has been the “Age of Exploration.” In 2021 the Philippines will commemorate the 500th anniversary of Magellan expedition and the first circumnavigation of the globe thus revisiting and revising the way in which this event has been re-presented and constructed now from a Filipino point of view as seen through history and official commemorations showing how one event can be seen from multiple, sometimes conflicting, points of view to develop a re-appraisal of the Philippines as a major crossroads between East and West at the time of the Galleons.

 

Antonio García-Abásolo – Universidad de Córdoba

Los mestizos de sangley, vasallos de la Monarquía Hispánica

Me intereso por el nacimiento y desarrollo de los mestizos de sangley, entre los siglos XVI y XVIII. En particular, mi objetivo es destacar el interés de las autoridades de Manila por estos mestizos como vasallos leales de la Corona española e idóneos para sustituir a los chinos en sus funciones económicas en Filipinas. Como un factor añadido, la política de la Monarquía Hispánica con los mestizos de sangley favoreció su configuración con una identidad propia entre los naturales de Filipinas.

 

Armando Marques Guedes – Faculdade de Direito NOVA, Lisbon

Keynote Speaker: The Philippines, Portugal, and ‘Southeast Asia’. Drawing connectivities

 

Bernard Lavallé – Université Sorbonne Nouvelle – Paris 3

Una ruta directa entre Filipinas y el Peru (fines del XVI-comienzos del XVIII)? Historia de un imposible?

 

Clotilde Jacquelard – Université Paris-Sorbonne

La cristiandad de los confines imperiales: las Filipinas de Pedro Chirino, S.J. (comienzos del siglo XVII)

Se tratará de mostrar, a partir del análisis de la Relación de las islas Filipinas (Roma, 1604) y de la Historia de la provincia de Filipinas de la Compañía de Jesús de Pedro Chirino, S.J., cómo la Compañía de Jesús hizo de las Filipinas un terreno de evangelización clave, entre los dos imperios ibéricos, en su proyecto de cristianización universal, y eso pese a la humildad de la labor evangelizadora cotidiana. En efecto, las Filipinas permitían iniciar de forma estable la cristianización de Asia a partir de un territorio colonizado por España. Y su evangelización pretendía ser ejemplar puesto que los españoles estaban sacando las lecciones de la experiencia americana en estos años 1580 que coinciden con la implantación de la Compañía en el archipiélago. Abandonando los descabellados proyectos de conquista de China, los jesuitas abogarán por una evangelización pacífica como lo defendía José de Acosta y lo realizaban en China Matteo Ricci y Michele Ruggieri o Alejandro Valignano en Japón, si bien de forma precaria puesto que fuera de todo marco colonial. Mediante el examen de estas dos fuentes complementarias, y teniendo en cuenta la problemática del contacto “global”, destacaremos la percepción que tuvieron los primeros jesuitas de las particularidades de la realidad geográfica y humana del archipiélago filipino, así como el impacto de las transformaciones impuestas por la conquista española en este laboratorio de la primera globalización. Estas percepciones determinaron las modalidades de adaptación del apostolado jesuita, en particular en las islas Visayas, frontera interna del archipiélago y terreno de cristianización privilegiada de la Compañía.

 

Elsa Penalva – CHAM, NOVA FCSH-UAc, Lisbon

O eixo Macau-Manila (1621-1634)

Em 1621 teve início uma rede social multicultural e miscigenada composta por mercadores e mulheres de nível social elevado, interessados no fortalecimento do eixo Macau-Manila. Uma rede alternativa à da Companhia de Jesus, da qual faziam parte terceários franciscanos, motivada pela fé e pelo lucro económico, mas também pelo desgaste que a parceria entre os jesuítas e as elites mercantis de Macau acusava. Caracterizar esta rede, nomeadamente o percurso de alguns dos seus elementos, é o objectivo desta comunicação.

 

Guadalupe Pinzón Ríos – Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Dos proyectos navales para proteger las rutas en torno a Filipinas: de Hernando de los Ríos Coronel y la conquista de Formosa a Henrique Hernán y su derrotero por las Babuyanes (1597 y 1730)

El objetivo de esta presentación es hablar de dos proyectos navales con los que se pretendió proteger el espacio marítimo al norte de Luzón para con ello mejorar la seguridad de las embarcaciones que transitaban por la zona. El primero fue planteado por Hernando de los Ríos Coronel (1597), quien proponía que la conquista de la isla de Formosa brindaría seguridad a las embarcaciones chinas que llevaban géneros a Manila; esta propuesta posteriormente fue complementada por el mismo personaje con el proyecto de proteger las rutas transpacíficas a partir de la creación de una armadilla que transitara en torno al archipiélago filipino. El segundo proyecto, presentado por el piloto Henrique Hernán, proponía cambiar la ruta de los galeones para que éstos viajaran por el norte de Luzón en lugar de hacerlo por el sur; con ello se protegería la navegación y se evitarían los contrabandos que usualmente se practicaban en dicha zona. Analizar ambas propuestas en su contexto permitirá estudiar las discusiones y transformaciones marítimo-comerciales que se plantearon en torno al archipiélago filipino y el funcionamiento y cambios que hubo sobre los contactos marítimos en esa zona. Además, permitirá conocer las problemáticas existentes en torno a Filipinas que se intentaron resolver con las propuestas de esos personajes.

 

Guillaume Gaudin – Université Toulouse Jean-Jaurès – Le Mirail

Conquest, information & communication at the Spanish Philippines’s beginnings 1560-1580

Between 1560 and 1580, the information (the best knowledge of the resources and of the inhabitants of the archipelago, the presence and settlement of the Portuguese and above all the demarcation with them, that is, the line defined in the Treaty of Zaragoza of 1529) and the communication (the flow of data between Mexico, Madrid and the Philippines) formed part of the objectives of the discovery – and in fine of the conquest – of the Philippine Islands. Based on partly unpublished documentation, I will consider communication and information as tense interaction between multiple actors: cosmographers, sailors, conquistadors, diplomats, the king, his advisers and secretaries. From there, I will analyse the modalities of construction and integration of a representation of the Philippines in the Catholic Monarchy. Secondly, I will try to show how the information for the conquest of the Philippines contribute to the great enterprise of the Hispanic “colonisation of knowledge”. Thirdly, I will consider the conflictual dynamics between Portugal and Spain in South East Asia based on information war. Throughout my presentation I will try to integrate the forms of contact between the hueste of Legazpi and the local populations of the Philippines.

 

Jean-Noël Sanchez – Université de Strasbourg

The Pampanga, between local sustenance and global support of the Hispanic monarchy in Asia, XVI-XVII centuries

The Spanish settlement in the Philippines and, beyond the archipelago itself, the development of the Hispanic expansion policy in Asia, depended largely on the province of Pampanga, north of Manila, and its population. In fact, the region not only supplied the colony in food resources, but also in soldiers who were ubiquitous in all the military fronts in which the Spaniards were involved. In this presentation, we will study the dialectics of interdependence and the logics of negotiation that this configuration generated, as well as the peculiar cases of imperial mobility that it gave rise to.

 

José Manuel Garcia – Gabinete de Estudos Olisiponenses, Lisbon

Ferdinand Magellan between the Moluccas and the Philippines: cartographic reflexes

Ferdinand Magellan’s interest in the Moluccas, where he was in 1512, and his going to the Philippines in 1521 are at the center of a conflictive rivalry between Portugal and Spain motivated by economic interests linked to the spice trade. The knowledge of these islands attained was reflected in the cartography elaborated in the first half of the sixteenth century by men such as Francisco Rodrigues, Pedro Reinel, Jorge Reinel, Nuno Garcia de Toreno, Diogo Ribeiro and Pedro Fernandes, who reveal in their works scientific records that are more or less linked to political interests. It is this problem that we will analyze.

 

Joshua Batts – Historiographical Institute, Tokyo University

Taxing Connections: Manila, Acapulco, and Japan’s San Juan Bautista, 1617-1618

Contact zones often lack firm borders but they do have limits. This paper examines a little-known episode in relations between Tokugawa Japan and the Spanish empire that tested those limits. In 1617, a Japanese vessel arrived in Acapulco for the third time that decade. The ship posed many problems for its hosts. Japanese vessels were not supposed to cross the great South Sea. Spanish sailors were not supposed to be helping them do so. Acapulco was not open to the ports of Asia outside Manila. The monarchy worried that the ship would trade for silver, further weakening its control of bullion flows westward. The vessel also added diplomatic insult to economic injury, returning Philip II’s envoys and gifts to the Tokugawa with no reply and reports of a very cold reception. The vessel became mired in a dispute over customs, a conflict that produced strange bedfellows. Representatives from Manila sided with the Japanese and successfully appealed Mexico’s initial decision to levy taxes. Interestingly, Manila secured Japan a tax break even as it hoped to curtail further Japanese trade in Acapulco. This episode may appear minor, but I argue that it illustrates the ambivalence of Japan and Spain’s commercial relations and signaled a shift in the dynamics animating them. This event marked the last time that many of the principals involved in Japan’s Pacific incursion interacted directly with one another. It also marked the last time that the Spanish empire adjudicated the relationship on its terms. Finally, it confirmed the closure of the eastern Pacific for the Japanese and presaged the Tokugawa dismissal of the Philippines in the decades to come. Contact between Japan and Spain’s Pacific world never ceased, but here I demonstrate how actors at the time defined and constrained Japan’s participation in the Philippines’ “Global” Contact Zone.

 

Juan Marchena & Naiybe Gutiérrez – Área de História de América, Universidad Pablo de Olavide

As cidades coloniais nas Filipinas: enclaves comerciais e fortificados (sécs. XVI-XVIII). A influência do modelo americano

 

Kevin Carreira Soares – PIUDHist / ICS-UL, Lisbon

Geographies in dispute. The Philippines and the spiritual jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in Asia (1579-1668)

In the construction of the empires, the notion of dispute over territories had an important role on the relation between crowns and agents in most regions. In Southeast Asia, the shared Geographies between both Iberian Empires, early created a notion of dispute, intensified after the union of both Portuguese and Spanish Crowns under the same King (1580). One year before, the Manila bishopric (1579) was created, when the political union was already certain. In the following years, different Spanish bishops and religious individuals argued against the rights of the Portuguese kingdom over those territories, using not only cartographic arguments, but sustaining also the incapability of the Portuguese people to evangelize. This conflict was intensified of the creation of Propaganda Fide (1622), to whom the Spanish clergy often wrote, both from the Philippines and Madrid, in order to defend their cause in Rome and guarantee the favour of the Papacy. Within this process, the bishoprics of Manila became part of a global discussion. In Europe, numerous consultations were made both in Madrid, Lisbon and the Holy See. In the empires, the cases of the Spanish and Portuguese colonization in America were frequently invoked. Occasionally, the archbishop of Goa, as metropolitan of the Portuguese Estado da Índia, intervened aiming to defend the Portuguese Padroado. Locally, agents in Macao, Japan, Malacca and the Philippines interacted repeatedly, both supporting or criticising each other’s claims. Using documentation from Roman, Portuguese and Spanish archives mainly, this paper aims to understand the impact of the Union of both crowns in the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the bishoprics in the Philippines, having as main agents the episcopacy. Did the Iberian Union intensified the authority of Spanish clergy to the territories that were under the Portuguese Crown influence before? Or, on the other hand, did the Union of both Crown consecrated a notion of separation of those territories, that the king, as protector of them both distinctly, couldn’t reverse? What was the influence of the Holy see in this process? How did it interact with the claimed spiritual jurisdiction of the Iberian Kingdoms in those territories? These are some of the questions that will be taken in consideration.

 

Maria João Pacheco Ferreira – CHAM, NOVA FCSH-UAc, Lisbon

Entre as Filipinas e a China: têxteis de confluência

No decurso do século XVI, após a fixação dos portugueses em Macau e dos espanhóis em Manila, os têxteis procedentes da China tornam-se uma realidade nos dois países ibéricos, aonde chegam sobretudo através dos portos de Lisboa e de Sevilha. Os exemplares de cariz religioso e civil que subsistem em coleções públicas e privadas são ainda em suficiente quantidade para atestar do seu sucesso e aceitação entre a sociedade peninsular. No entanto, as peças observadas revelam características diversas entre si, sugerindo referentes e realidades de produção também elas díspares. A presente comunicação propõe uma reflexão em torno do modo plural como este património artístico tem sido apreendido e das problemáticas que lhe subjazem, tanto ao nível da sua realização como da atribuição de conceitos operativos aplicados em contexto historiográfico e/ou museológico para os designar.

 

Marjorie Trusted – Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Shipwrecked Ivories: The Confluence Of East And West

From the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries ivories were exported in some numbers from the Far East to Spain, which had conquered the Philippines in 1565. My talk will centre on some exceptional shipwrecked ivories made in the Far East over four centuries ago. The rescue project of bringing them to the surface of the ocean hundreds of years later has yielded tantalising nuggets of information, seen through the objects recovered, and what they could tell us about the trade of luxury items from the Far East to Europe in the late sixteenth century. These small sculptures indicate much about the making and trading of colonial works of art, as well as the links between the Orient – specifically the Philippines – and Europe. Several dozen were excavated in the Pacific Ocean from a shipwrecked vessel, the Santa Margarita, at the start of the present century. Some were mere fragments of sculptures, others virtually complete small-scale works, representing Christian subjects, many carved by Chinese and Filipino sculptors in the Philippines. A number had inevitably been seriously damaged through having been underwater for almost 400 years, but many are still recognizable, and are witnesses of a trade and an art whose history was itself fragmentary before this discovery. They do not answer all the questions we might have, but are vitally important for numerous reasons. My paper will seek to set out some of the tantalising glimpses they give us of the trade and history of ivory at this date.

 

Miguel Rodrigues Lourenço – CHAM, NOVA FCSH-UAc, Lisbon

Territorializing Inquisition across the Pacific: the creation of a network of comisarios del Santo Oficio in the Philippine Islands (16th-18th centuries)

For the Inquisition of Mexico, the Philippine Islands naturally raised the question of what the best effective solution would be to insure the institutional representation of the tribunal over the distant archipelago. Separated from the seat of the tribunal by a vast Ocean and communicated only through the annual commercial route between Acapulco and Manila, the Philippines posed institutional challenges and difficulties to the desired procedural practices of the Holy Office. In the 17th century the Inquisition of Mexico tried to reinforce its presence in the archipelago by naming comisarios (representatives) in many of the islands by resorting to the several religious orders therein. This strategy revealed itself less straightforward than imagined as the tensions between the different orders impacted on the exercise and distribution of the comisarios’ networks. In this paper we aim to reconstruct the network of comisarios and analyse the difficulties felt by the tribunal in managing said network from afar.

 

Rafael Valladares – Universidad Complutense de Madrid / CSIC

Antes y después de Pierre Chaunu. El lugar de Filipinas

La historiografía sobre las Filipinas de la Edad Moderna ha evolucionado profundamente en los últimos cincuenta años. Las diferentes perspectivas han privilegiado, sucesivamente, la “hispanización” religiosa, el carácter “subcolonial” del archipiélago asiático respecto de México, la función de “polo complementario” de Macau –sobre todo durante la Unión de Coronas de 1580 a 1640- y, más recientemente, la naturaleza “global” del hub filipino. Cada uno de estos modelos ofrece resultados muy distintos que serán analizados en la ponencia.

 

Rui Manuel Loureiro – CHAM, NOVA FCSH-UAc, Lisbon / Instituto Superior Manuel Teixeira Gomes, Portimão

Closing Remarks

 

Stephanie Marie R. Coo – Ateneo de Manila University

Lowland, Christianized Clothing Culture in 19th Century Spanish Philippines

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